Early this year Masimba Tafirenyika travelled to Ethiopia to see how much has changed since the infamous famine of the mids. This is the second part of a series on a country in transition. Today, 30 years later, Ethiopia is again faced with a crisis — a crop failure triggered by erratic rainfall.
The drought could pose the same threat to the livelihoods of about eight million Ethiopians. But conditions are now vastly different from the dark days of the s: the government has transformed the economy into one of the fastest-growing in the world 9.
What has created the turn-around? Second, it created institutions and enacted policies to identify and fix the bottlenecks that have crippled agricultural production for decades. The models feature two key elements: first, a clear set of priorities to fix critical bottlenecks skills, resources, funding and coordination in specific areas of the sector; and second, a dedicated body to advise key players in agriculture on how to remove these bottlenecks.
The government gave the troubleshooting job to the Agriculture Transformation Agency ATAa semi-autonomous, donor-sponsored state agency that punches above its weight. Among them is a nationwide digital soil mapping scheme that has transformed the use of fertilizer in Ethiopia, and a hotline that dispenses free advice to farmers. Its job is to collect and analyze the nutrient needs of specific soils found in Ethiopia. Launched inEthioSIS uses remote sensing satellite technology and soil sampling to produce digital soil maps for each region.
As a result experts have generated a national soil fertility atlas, giving the agency the ability to recommend the specific type of fertilizer to be used in each region. A farmer simply has to provide a sample of soil from his land and EthioSIS workers advise on the exact brand of fertilizer to use. Before the system was developed, farmers had access to only two brands of fertilizer, regardless of the type of soil they were working with.
EthioSIS workers have come up with 12 new types of fertilizers after analyses of assorted soil samples. They expect to complete the project and release local soil atlases for the whole country by June Thanks to the ATA, today millions of farmers have access to fertilizer matched to their specific soil.
The ATA has extended its innovation to take advantage of mobile phone technology. One initiative popular with farmers is a free automated agricultural hotline. But even this is not enough to get messages out to millions of farmers in a country of 94 million people, the second largest on the continent after Nigeria.
Worse still, there is always the risk that the message from extension workers could be distorted, lost in translation or misinterpreted as it cascades down the chain. It boasts more than a million registered callers, the majority of whom are smallholder farmers, who have made 7. Many other innovative agricultural projects are being tried in Ethiopia outside the ATA. Farmers now produce more crops, with surpluses sent to local and export markets.
But for buyers and sellers to transact business, they need assurances of reasonable prices for their crops, reliable delivery and a trouble-free payment system.
Ethiopia: fixing agriculture
The seven-year-old exchange, which is state-owned but privately run, provides a reliable interface whereby traders are offered guarantees of quality, delivery and payment. The ECX founder has since moved on and is now helping other African countries to set up similar exchanges.
ECX guarantees next-day payment for crops. Members of the exchange bring their commodities to ECX-run warehouses, where they are graded, certified, weighed and stored.
According to Bloomberg Business, a US magazine, ECX plans to expand the range of crops it trades and to introduce stocks and bonds under a five-year expansion plan.
Agriculture in Ethiopia has come a long way. If all goes as planned, the country will be food secure within the next 10 years.The ranges in climate variability by season and over time framed a sophisticated set of crops, agricultural practices, and local political ecologies. Chief among these was the development and use of the single-tine ox-plow i.
Animal husbandry to sustain animal traction and pastoral livelihoods in regional ecologies was essential, over time, to regional economies and their political ecologies.
Agricultural patterns existed at the heart of cultural diversities and periods of political conflict and accommodations. In some areas of the south Sidamosoutheast Harar highlandsand southwest Jimmacoffee cultivation complemented annual grain cropping. Yet the plow in its current form as a dominant tool appears in rock painting dating as far back as ad. That technology was both efficient and persistent. New crops such as maizeurbanization, and global migration of peoples and commodities oil seeds, fibers, and grains brought new seeds, inputs, and pressures to adapt to change, particularly for smallholder farmers and new enterprises.
Heavy investments in dams and irrigated agriculture also foretell new agricultural landscapes of riverain areas that will need to coexist with the classic highland smallholder farms. Their agrarian adaptation to new methods, new materials, and a new climate will play itself out in existing geographies and natural contours.
Keywords: ox-plowannual cropshighland agriculturesmallholderoil seedsmaizeteffensete. Access to the complete content on Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.Hudway drive obd
Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History.The Chamwada Report: Hydroponic Farming in Kenya
Publications Pages Publications Pages. Oxford Research Encyclopedias African History. The History of Agriculture in Ethiopia.Ethiopia is a landlocked country split by the Great Rift Valley. With a population of 94 million growing at annual rate of 2. The real gross domestic product GDP growth averaged at Agriculture is the mainstay of the Ethiopian economy, contributing On agriculture expenditure related metric, Ethiopia has dedicated an annual investment of about Also, overgrazing, deforestation and high population density has led to massive soil degradation leading to low productivity.
The above problems have made it hard for the country to feed itself—best exemplified by the dramatic famine. Since then, the country has experienced similar occurrences that expose a sizeable population to humanitarian needs.
However, a critical look at the sector shows a high potential for self-sufficiency in grains and also for the development export especially for livestock, vegetables, fruits and grains.
Further, many other economic activities depend on agriculture. These include processing, marketing and export of agricultural products among others. Ethiopia has about While Ethiopia has a potential to grow all types of tea, the country produces only black tea, with a production capacity of 7, tons of black tea per annum.
Thus, investment potential exists in large-scale commercial tea production as well as modern tea packing and blending industries. Other important cereals are wheat and barley mainly in Oromia and some parts of Amhara Regions in about 1 million ha and 1. The country is home to about 49 million heads of cattle, 22 million heads of goats, 17 million heads of sheep and 38 million chickens.
The country also has demonstrated potential for fishery development in its freshwater lakes, reservoirs and rivers. However, Ethiopia remains an unexploited market and untapped for investors. The conditions are suitable for growing major food crops such as cereals, pulses, and oilseeds. Some of the sectors that also have great potential for investment include organic coffee cultivation, sugar cane, tea and spices, cotton and textilea broad range of fruits and vegetables and cut flowers.
By virtue of being a COMESA member, bringing together 19 countries with a total population of million, Ethiopia also has preferential market access to these countries. Ethiopian products have access to these markets quota and duty-free.
Agricultural Transformation Agency. Addis Ababa: ATA. Ethiopian Coffee Exporters Association. Major Growing Areas. Ethiopian Investment Commission. Addis Ababa: Ethiopian Investment Commission. Agricultre Sector Investment Opportunities. Ethiopia Economic and Trade Report. Matousa, P. Roles of extension and ethno-religious networks in acceptance of resource-conserving agriculture among Ethiopian farmers.
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 11 4 Moller, L. Washington, D. Addis Ababa. Tefera, Abu. The World Factbook. Ethiopia Country Profile. Read our most recent article on this topic here.Economy - overview: Ethiopia - the second most populous country in Africa - is a one-party state with a planned economy.
This growth was driven by government investment in infrastructure, as well as sustained progress in the agricultural and service sectors.
Ethiopia - Agriculture
Ethiopia has the lowest level of income-inequality in Africa and one of the lowest in the world, with a Gini coefficient comparable to that of the Scandinavian countries.
Yet despite progress toward eliminating extreme poverty, Ethiopia remains one of the poorest countries in the world, due both to rapid population growth and a low starting base. Changes in rainfall associated with world-wide weather patterns resulted in the worst drought in 30 years increating food insecurity for millions of Ethiopians.Half life alyx font
The state is heavily engaged in the economy. Ongoing infrastructure projects include power production and distribution, roads, rails, airports and industrial parks. Key sectors are state-owned, including telecommunications, banking and insurance, and power distribution.
Under Ethiopia's constitution, the state owns all land and provides long-term leases to tenants. Title rights in urban areas, particularly Addis Ababa, are poorly regulated, and subject to corruption. While coffee remains the largest foreign exchange earner, Ethiopia is diversifying exports, and commodities such as gold, sesame, khat, livestock and horticulture products are becoming increasingly important.
To support industrialization in sectors where Ethiopia has a comparative advantage, such as textiles and garments, leather goods, and processed agricultural products, Ethiopia plans to increase installed power generation capacity by 8, MW, up from a capacity of 2, MW, by building three more major dams and expanding to other sources of renewable energy.
No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Ethiopia Economy information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Ethiopia Economy should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page. For example, it assigns unemployment rates in increasing order, whereas we rank them in decreasing order. Page last updated on January 27, Economy - overview: Ethiopia - the second most populous country in Africa - is a one-party state with a planned economy.Agriculture, which constituted 46 percent of GDP and more than 80 percent of exports inis by far the most important economic activity in the Ethiopian economy est.
An estimated 85 percent of the population are engaged in agricultural production. Important agricultural exports include coffee, hides and skins leather productspulses, oilseeds, beeswax, and, increasingly, tea.Anniversary card for struggling marriage
Domestically, meat and dairy production play an integral role for subsistence purposes. Socialist agricultural reforms conducted by the Derg included land reforms that led to relatively equitable patterns of land tenure. The state maintained complete ownership of land, and state marketing boards were created with monopolistic rights to purchase and sell agricultural commodities.
Currently, the government retains the right of ultimate land ownership in the agricultural sector, though most marketing boards have been abolished. While marketing boards enabled farmers to sell their crops to the highest bidder, they also required the dissolution of minimum prices for agricultural commodities. Since the government normally purchased agricultural commodities at low prices, however, the abolition of marketing boards may prove to be a positive development.
With 25 percent of all Ethiopians—approximately 15 million people—gaining their livelihoods from coffee production, the coffee sector is the most important agricultural activity. According to the U. Coffee has long held a central role in Ethiopia's export economy and, as early as the mids, about 55 percent of the nation's total export earnings derived from coffee exports.
This percentage share remained more or less constant until the mids, when it increased to an average of 63 percent of total export earnings between to With the export economy so heavily dependent upon the exportation of a single crop, the Ethiopian economy is structured into a precarious insecure and dangerous position. If annual production declines as a result of a bad harvest due to natural factors, such as drought—a constant threatexport earnings will suffer considerably, exacerbating making worse the country's already negative balance of trade.
Similarly, if all coffee producing countries produce large amounts of coffee in a given year—resulting in an excessive supply—international prices for coffee will decline and Ethiopia's export economy will accordingly suffer.
Such was the case inwhen a glut in the world supply of coffee reduced Ethiopia's coffee earnings by 22 percent from the previous year.
With 75 million heads of livestock, Ethiopia has the largest concentration of livestock on the African continent. According to the Country Commercial Guidehowever, it is difficult to calculate the cattle sector's exact value, since a substantial amount of meat and dairy production is for subsistence consumption.
In certain regions, such as the highlands, livestock is utilized only to support farming. Still, hides and leather products are Ethiopia's second most important export, though the Commercial Guide states that the sector's huge potential remains largely untapped, as a result of weather conditions droughtdiseases, and the lack of a coherent government plan for the development of the sector.
Ethiopia is also the continent's leading producer and exporter of beeswax and honey. The country has approximately 7 million bee colonies. Other important agricultural activities include tea production, which has reached approximately 4, metric tons of output in recent years, and cotton and sugar production.
Moreover, there are opportunities for expanding cultivation and export of dried fruits, cut flowers, and canned vegetable products.
While the agricultural export economy is constantly subjected to the caprices whims of the weather, so too is agricultural production geared towards domestic consumption. Infor example, IMF statistics indicate that Ethiopia produced 51, quintals of cereals, mostly for domestic consumption, whereas the following year the cereals output dropped to 47, quintals—a decline of 8. The decrease was largely the result of drought.
The fact that Ethiopia has an extremely poor infrastructure for agricultural production does not help the matter. Though there is the potential for Ethiopia to become self-sufficient in grain production, the country must currently continue to import grains in addition to receiving food aid in order to feed the population.
Like many African countries, Ethiopia confronts several environmental issues that are particularly problematic for the agricultural sector of the economy. Such issues include deforestation depletion of forestsover-grazing depletion of pasturessoil erosion depletion of quality soiland desertification extensive drying of the land.
Since only 12 percent of all Ethiopian land is arable, 1 percent is used for permanent crops, and 40 percent is comprised of permanent pastures, it is essential for Ethiopia to address these environmental problems in order to maintain the land so fundamental for agricultural activities.
Moreover, according to Girma Kebbede, the author of The State and Development in Ethiopia, it is precisely these environmental problems—rather than just the shifting weather patterns—which contribute primarily to the chronic famines that so frequently plague the country.
Quite simply, limited arable land as a result of soil erosion and other environmental difficulties mean that in times of drought, there are very few available methods to prevent widespread famine.This page provides - Ethiopia Gdp From Agriculture- actual values, historical data, forecast, chart, statistics, economic calendar and news.
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Ethiopia Coronavirus Cases at Ethiopia Coronavirus Recovered at 4. Ethiopia Food Inflation at Ethiopia Inflation Rate at Ethiopia Consumer Price Index Cpi at Ethiopia Government Budget at Ethiopia Inflation Rate MoM at 2. Japan Producer Prices Fall in March. World Coronavirus Cases Surpass 1. Calendar Forecast News Indicators.
Interest Rate. Constant Prices, NSA. GDP per capita.
GDP Constant Prices.The perception of Ethiopia projected in the media is often one of chronic poverty and hunger, but this bleak assessment does not accurately reflect most of the country today. Ethiopia encompasses a wide variety of agroecologies and peoples. Its agriculture sector, economy, and food security status are equally complex. In fact, since the per capita income in certain rural areas has risen by more than 50 percent, and crop yields and availability have also increased. Higher investments in roads and mobile phone technology have led to improved infrastructure and thereby greater access to markets, commodities, services, and information.
The book is designed to provide empirical evidence to shed light on the complexities of agricultural and food policy in today's Ethiopia, highlight major policies and interventions of the past decade, and provide insights into building resilience to natural disasters and food crises. It examines the key issues, constraints, and opportunities that are likely to shape a food-secure future in Ethiopia, focusing on land quality, crop production, adoption of high-quality seed and fertilizer, and household income.
Order from University of Pennsylvania Press. Introduction Paul A. Gilligan, John F. Skip to main content. Table of Contents Introduction Paul A.
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